Among postmenopausal women taking hormone therapy (HT), the estradiol (E2) dose and E2 levels were differentially associated with change in metabolic measures. We evaluated determinants of attained E2 levels in response to HT.
Postmenopausal women from the REPLENISH trial tested four formulations of oral combined E2 and progesterone compared with placebo. Mixed-effects linear models assessed characteristics associated with E2 levels among women with ≥80% HT compliance, adjusted for E2 dose and baseline E2 level.
Among 1173 postmenopausal women with mean (standard deviation) age 55 (4.3) years and 5.2 (4.8) years since menopause, higher treated E2 levels were significantly related to younger age, more recent menopause, and current alcohol use, while lower E2 levels were related to current smoking. Both age and time since menopause were significantly inversely associated with E2 levels; time since menopause had a stronger association with E2 levels. In the final multivariable model, E2 levels were positively associated with current alcohol use, and inversely associated with time since menopause and current smoking.
Adjusting for E2 dose and baseline E2 level, on-trial E2 levels were significantly associated with time since menopause, current smoking, and current alcohol use. Practitioners should consider these factors in individual women to achieve a desirable E2 level during HT.