This study aimed to assess determinants of low birth weight in Sidama Zone public hospitals of South Ethiopia. An institution-based case-control study was conducted in Sidama Zone public hospitals. Researchers collected data from 354 mother-neonate samples, with 118 having newborns and 236 having a pretested, interviewer-administered structured questionnaire and medical record review. The odds of being rural dweller women were 3.51 times higher among cases than among controls compared to being urban dweller women. The likelihood of initiating antenatal care late was 3.22 times more among cases than among controls when compared with timely initiation of antenatal care. The probability of having pregnancy-induced hypertension was 4.49 times higher among the patients than among mothers of the rules compared to not having pregnancy-induced hypertension. The odds of not taking iron and folic acid during pregnancy were 3.92 times higher among mothers of the cases than mothers of the controls compared with taking iron and folic acid. The likelihood of having Mid-Upper Arm circumferences was 4.27 times higher among the mothers of the patients than among mothers of the controls. The probability of having inadequate dietary diversity was 3.75 times higher among cases than among controls compared to having an excellent nutritional variety. Interventions targeting the aversion of low birth weight should focus on promoting iron-folic acid supplementation and dietary diversification through timely initiation of antenatal care.
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