Journal of medical case reports 2017 11 1211(1) 319 doi 10.1186/s13256-017-1462-5
Glycogen storage disease type Ia is a genetic disorder that is associated with persistent fasting hypoglycemia and the inability to produce endogenous glucose. The development of diabetes with glycogen storage disease is exceedingly rare. The underlying pathogenesis for developing diabetes in these patients is unclear, and there are no guidelines for treatment.
We describe a case of a 34-year-old woman of South Asian descent with glycogen storage disease type Ia, who developed uncontrolled diabetes mellitus as a young adult. Hyperglycemia was noted after childbirth, and worsened years later. Treatment for diabetes was difficult due to risks of hypoglycemia from her underlying glycogen storage disease. With minimal hypoglycemic events, the patient’s blood glucose improved with exercise in combination with a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor and an alpha glucosidase inhibitor.
We report a rare case of diabetes in the setting of glycogen storage disease-Ia. Based on the literature, there appears to be a relationship between glycogen storage disease and metabolic syndrome, which likely plays a role in the pathogenesis. The management of glycemic control remains a clinical challenge, requiring management of both fasting hypoglycemia from glycogen storage disease, as well as post-prandial hyperglycemia from diabetes mellitus.