For a study, researchers sought to look at the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the occurrence of depressive episodes in men and women. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort of Brazilian government workers, were used from 12,730 individuals (5,866 men and 6,864 women) at baseline (2008–2010) and follow-up 1 (2012–2014). Participants were identified as diabetic based on self-reported and clinical data, and the Clinical Interview Schedule–Revised was used to assess the occurrence of depressive episodes (CIS-R). Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations (crude and adjusted for socio-demographic variables). 

Women with DM prior to the baseline had a 48% increased risk (95% CI=1.03–2.07) of depressive episodes in the crude model and a 54% increased risk (95% CI=1.06–2.19) in the final adjusted model compared to women without DM. For males, no significant relationships were found. The regression models for the duration of diabetes and the occurrence of depressive episodes (n=2,143 individuals; 1,160 males and 983 women) revealed no significant relationships. The increased incidence of depressive episodes in women with past DM implies that more regular screening for depression may be advantageous as part of a multi-factor approach to DM therapy.