To examine the association of diabetes and prediabetes with suicide deaths in a Japanese working population.
A nested case-control study was conducted using data from the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study. During 8 years of follow-up, we identified 56 registered cases of suicide death that had information on fasting plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c at any health check-up during the past 3 years prior to suicide. For each case, we randomly selected five controls matched for age, sex, and worksite. We used the latest health check-up data for analysis. We defined diabetes status based on the American Diabetes Association criteria and used a conditional logistic regression model to investigate the association.
Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicide death were 0.67 (0.32-1.41) and 3.53 (1.05-11.91) for prediabetes and diabetes, respectively, compared to normoglycemia. Similar results were obtained when diabetes status was exclusively defined by the fasting plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c level.
Diabetes, but not prediabetes, was associated with a higher risk of suicide death, compared with normoglycemia, among a Japanese working population.

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