Diabetic gastroparesis is defined as delayed gastric emptying without mechanical obstruction in the setting of diabetes. Symptoms range from mild bloating to severe vomiting episodes and can result in frequent hospitalizations and poor quality of life. It is suspected that diabetic gastroparesis is underdiagnosed due to its similar presentation to other conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. The pathogenesis of diabetic gastroparesis remains unclear, but proposed mechanisms include vagal dysfunction, hyperglycemia, interstitial cells of Cajal network disturbances, loss of neural nitric oxide synthase expression in the myenteric plexus, and oxidative stress. Current management for diabetic gastroparesis focuses on dietary and lifestyle changes as well as improved glycemic control. Limited options for medical therapies are available that include prokinetic and antiemetic medications. Metoclopramide is the only FDA-approved medication for the treatment of gastroparesis. Metoclopramide improves symptoms of gastroparesis although extended treatment presents challenges such as decreased efficacy over time and increased risks for adverse events. We summarize the current knowledge of the pathophysiology of diabetic gastroparesis and review current and investigational treatments for diabetes gastroparesis.
Published by Elsevier Inc.