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Diagnosis and outcomes of acute kidney injury using surrogate and imputation methods for missing preadmission creatinine values.

Diagnosis and outcomes of acute kidney injury using surrogate and imputation methods for missing preadmission creatinine values.
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Bernier-Jean A, Beaubien-Souligny W, Goupil R, Madore F, Paquette F, Troyanov S, Bouchard J,


Bernier-Jean A, Beaubien-Souligny W, Goupil R, Madore F, Paquette F, Troyanov S, Bouchard J, (click to view)

Bernier-Jean A, Beaubien-Souligny W, Goupil R, Madore F, Paquette F, Troyanov S, Bouchard J,

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BMC nephrology 2017 04 2818(1) 141 doi 10.1186/s12882-017-0552-3
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Missing preadmission serum creatinine (SCr) values are a common obstacle to assess acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis and outcomes. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines suggest using a SCr computed from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 75 ml/min/1.73 m(2). We aimed to identify the best surrogate method for baseline SCr to assess AKI diagnosis and outcomes.

METHODS
We compared the use of 1) first SCr at hospital admission 2) minimal SCr over 2 weeks after intensive care unit admission 3) MDRD computed SCr and 4) Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) computed SCr to assess AKI diagnosis and outcomes. We then performed multilinear regression models to predict preadmission SCr and imputation strategies to assess AKI diagnosis.

RESULTS
Our one-year retrospective cohort study included 1001 critically ill adults; 498 of them had preadmission SCr values. In these patients, AKI incidence was 25.1% using preadmission SCr. First SCr had the best agreement for AKI diagnosis (22.5%; kappa = 0.90) and staging (kappa = 0.81). MDRD, CKD-EPI and minimal SCr overestimated AKI diagnosis (26.7%, 27.1% and 43.2%;kappa = 0.86, 0.86 and 0.60, respectively). However, MDRD and CKD-EPI computed SCr had a better sensitivity than first SCr for AKI (93% and 94% vs. 87%). Eighty-eight percent of patients experienced renal recovery at least 3 months after hospital discharge. All methods except the first SCr significantly underestimated the percentage of renal recovery. In a multivariate model, age, male gender, hypertension, heart failure, undergoing surgery and log first SCr best predicted preadmission SCr (adjusted R(2) = 0.56). Imputation methods with first SCr increased AKI incidence to 23.9% (kappa = 0.92) but not with MDRD computed SCr (26.7%;kappa = 0.89).

CONCLUSION
In our cohort, first SCr performed better for AKI diagnosis and staging, as well as for renal recovery after hospital discharge than MDRD, CKD-EPI or minimal SCr. However, MDRD SCr and CKD-EPI SCr improved AKI diagnosis sensitivity. Imputation methods minimally increased agreement for AKI diagnosis.

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