To compare the performance of the deep learning-based lesion detection algorithm (DLLD) in detecting liver metastasis with that of radiologists.
This clinical retrospective study used 4386-slice computed tomography (CT) images and labels from a training cohort (502 patients with colorectal cancer [CRC] from November 2005 to December 2010) to train the DLLD for detecting liver metastasis, and used CT images of a validation cohort (40 patients with 99 liver metastatic lesions and 45 patients without liver metastasis from January 2011 to December 2011) for comparing the performance of the DLLD with that of readers (three abdominal radiologists and three radiology residents). For per-lesion binary classification, the sensitivity and false positives per patient were measured.
A total of 85 patients with CRC were included in the validation cohort. In the comparison based on per-lesion binary classification, the sensitivity of DLLD (81.82%, [81/99]) was comparable to that of abdominal radiologists (80.81%, = 0.80) and radiology residents (79.46%, = 0.57). However, the false positives per patient with DLLD (1.330) was higher than that of abdominal radiologists (0.357, < 0.001) and radiology residents (0.667, < 0.001).
DLLD showed a sensitivity comparable to that of radiologists when detecting liver metastasis in patients initially diagnosed with CRC. However, the false positives of DLLD were higher than those of radiologists. Therefore, DLLD could serve as an assistant tool for detecting liver metastasis instead of a standalone diagnostic tool.

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