Diarrhea in the pediatric solid organ transplantation (SOT) recipient is a frequent complaint that is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. There are limited published data regarding the specific epidemiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of diarrhea after SOT in children. Pediatric SOT recipients have an increased risk of developing diarrhea because of a generalized immunosuppressed state, epidemiologic exposures, and polypharmacy. There is a need to standardize the diagnostic evaluation of diarrhea in children after SOT to facilitate an accurate diagnosis and timely treatment. Herein, we review the available published data and propose a systematic, stepwise approach to the evaluation of diarrhea in this high-risk population, focusing on timely diagnosis of both infectious and non-infectious causes, in order to provide focused management. Prospective studies are needed to better assess the true prevalence, risk factors for, etiologies, and complications of diarrhea in pediatric SOT patients that will guide optimal management. Development of effective vaccines and antiviral therapies for enteric viruses may also contribute to improved outcomes.
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