Lipids in health and disease 2017 10 0416(1) 192 doi 10.1186/s12944-017-0571-x
To investigate the association of major dietary patterns with glucose and insulin homeostasis parameters in a large American sample. The association between dietary patterns (DP) derived via principal components analysis (PCA), with glucose/insulin homeostasis parameters was assessed. The likelihood of insulin resistance (IR) across the DPs quarters was also explored.
The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants during 2005-2012 were included if they underwent measurement of dietary intake as well as glucose and insulin homeostasis parameters. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted logistic and linear regression models were employed to account for the complex survey design and sample weights.
A total of 24,182 participants were included; 48.9% (n = 11,815) were men. Applying PCA revealed three DP (56.8% of variance): the first was comprised mainly of saturated fat (SFA), total fat, mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and carbohydrate (CHO); the second is highly enriched with vitamins, trace elements and dietary fiber; and the third was composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), cholesterol and protein. Among the total population, after adjustment for age, sex, race, C-reactive protein, smoking, and physical activity, glucose homeostasis factors, visceral adiposity index and lipid accumulation product improved across the quarters of the first and third DP; and a reverse pattern with the second DP. The same trend was observed for the non-diabetic subjects. Moreover, subjects with higher adherence to the first and third DP had higher likelihood for developing IR, whereas there was a lower likelihood for the second DP.
This study shows that the DP heavily loaded with CHO, SFA, PUFA, protein, total fat and MUFA as well as high-cholesterol-load foods is associated with impaired glucose tolerance; in contrast, the healthy pattern which is high in vitamins, minerals and fiber may have favourable effects on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.