The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of diet reversal to standard chow on diet-induced changes in structure and function of normal and obstructed bladders in male Wistar rats.
Eighty animals were equally divided into sham-surgery and bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) dietary groups and fed standard chow (control), high-carbohydrate, high-fat, and high-protein diets. BOO groups had surgically induced BOO, whereas sham surgery was performed on sham groups at the end of week 8. Animals were continued on the treatment diets for 4 wk after surgery, then the diets were all changed to standard chow for the remainder of the study period. Bladder weight, detrusor contractility, Rho-associated protein kinase (Rho-kinase), and myosin light chain kinase were determined. Polymerase chain reaction was used to assay for transforming growth factor-β, connecting tissue growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and platelet-derived growth factor subunit A levels in the bladder. C-reactive protein, insulin-like growth factor-1, nerve growth factor, and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The collagen content of the bladder was estimated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.
Reversal of diet to standard chow resulted in reversal of diet-induced changes in all variables measured in obstructed bladders. High-fat-diet-induced alterations in normal bladders were also reversed.
The results suggested that in obstructed bladders of animals, reversal of the diet could reverse all diet-associated changes that increase inflammation and fibrosis in obstructed bladders. This is especially important in changes related to high consumption of fatty diets and associated lower urinary tract symptoms.

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