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Difference of the progression of pulmonary cysts assessed by computed tomography among COPD, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.

Difference of the progression of pulmonary cysts assessed by computed tomography among COPD, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.
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Tobino K, Hirai T, Johkoh T, Fujimoto K, Kawaguchi A, Tomiyama N, Takahashi K, Seyama K,


Tobino K, Hirai T, Johkoh T, Fujimoto K, Kawaguchi A, Tomiyama N, Takahashi K, Seyama K, (click to view)

Tobino K, Hirai T, Johkoh T, Fujimoto K, Kawaguchi A, Tomiyama N, Takahashi K, Seyama K,

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PloS one 2017 12 0812(12) e0188771 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0188771
Abstract

Many groups developed the methods to quantitatively analyze low attenuation area (LAA) on chest CT in patients with cystic lung diseases. Especially in COPD, it was reported that the cumulative size distribution of LAA clusters follows a power law characterized by the exponent D, which reflect the fractal dimension of terminal airspace geometry. We hypoyhesized that the quantitative charateristics of LAA clusters including fractal property might indicate the different features of the progression of cysts in cystic lung diseases. The aim of this study was to apply the CT image-based method of characterizing the size distribution of LAA clusters for lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) to disclose their features of the progression of pulmonary cysts. 40 patients with COPD, 52 patients with LAM, and 18 patients with BHDS who had undergone CT scans at our institute between January 2002 and August 2009 were included. Differences among these diseases in the quantitative characteristics of LAA clusters {i.e., extent, number, size, fractal property, and the relationship between these quantitatives} were assessed. The Chi-sqsuare test, unpaired t-test, and one-way analyses of variance with Tukey post-hoc tests were used to compare groups, spline model with an interaction terms were used to assess the relationship between extent and number, and exponential regression model was used to assess the relationship between extent and size. Statistically significant differences separated the three diseases in extent and number (P < 0.001). Number was significantly correlated with extent in COPD (P < 0.001), but was not so in LAM and BHDS when extent exceeded 11.5% and 20.8%, respectively. Size was significantly correlated with extent in COPD and LAM (P < 0.001), but was not so in BHDS. The percentage of CT images with fractal property was higher in COPD than that in LAM and BHDS (95.8%, 92.9% and 63.0%, respectively). In conclusion, our study has demonstrated for the first time the different characteristics of the size distribution of LAA clusters among COPD, LAM and BHDS, and indicated that this method is useful for exploration of the pathophysiology in cystic lung diseases.

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