Journal of the peripheral nervous system : JPNS 2018 03 30() doi 10.1111/jns.12266
Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (AIDP) and Acute-onset Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (A-CIDP) are conditions presenting overlapping clinical features during early stages (first 4 weeks), although the latter may progress after 8 weeks. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors contributing to their differential diagnosis. Clinical records of adult patients with AIDP or A-CIDP diagnosed at our institution between January-2006 and July-2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) findings, treatment and clinical evolution were analyzed. Nerve conduction studies were performed in all patients with at least 12 months follow-up. A total of 91 patients were included (AIDP, n=77; A-CIDP, n=14). The median age was 55.5 years in patients with A-CIDP vs. 43 years in AIDP (p=0.07). The history of diabetes mellitus was more frequent in A-CIDP (29% vs. 8%, p=0.04). No significant differences between groups were observed with respect to: HIV status, presence of autoimmune disorder or oncologic disease. Cranial, motor and autonomic nerve involvement rates were similar in both groups. Patients in the A-CIDP group showed higher frequency of proprioceptive disturbances (83% vs. 28%; p<0.001), sensory ataxia (46% vs. 16%; p=0.01) and the use of combined immunotherapy with corticoids (29% vs. 3%; p=0.005). There were no significant differences in CSF findings, ICU admission or mortality rates. During the first 8 weeks both entities are practically indistinguishable. Alterations in proprioception could suggest A-CIDP. Searching for markers that allow early differentiation could favor the onset of corticotherapy without delay.