Cigarette smoking and biomass smoke are the two main environmental risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) worldwide. However, it remains unclear why these exposures result in two different disease phenotypes. In this study, we assessed the lung deposition from biomass and cigarette smoke exposures and examined whether differences due to inherently different particle size distributions and inhalation conditions may contribute to the differences between biomass- and tobacco-related COPD phenotypes. Using high-fidelity three-dimensional computational fluid-particle dynamics in a representative upper airway geometry, coupled to one-dimensional models of the lower airways, we computed total deposited doses and examined regional deposition patterns based on exposure data from a randomized control trial in Peru and from the literature for biomass and mainstream cigarette smoke, respectively. Our results showed that intrathoracic deposition was higher in cigarette smoking, with 36.8% of inhaled biomass smoke particles and 57.7% of cigarette smoke particles depositing in the intrathoracic airways. We observed higher fractions of cigarette smoke particles in the last few airway generations, which could explain why cigarette smoking is associated with more emphysema than biomass smoke exposure. Mean daily deposited dose was two orders of magnitude higher in cigarette smoking. Lobar distributions of the deposited dose also differed, with the left lower and right upper lobes receiving the highest doses of biomass and cigarette smoke particles, respectively. Our findings suggest that the differences between biomass- and tobacco-related COPD could, at least in part, be due to differences in total and regional lung deposition of biomass and cigarette smoke.Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.