Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) occurs in only one eye in some patients. We aimed to characterize anatomical features of the angle and Schlemm’s canal (SC) in vivo among fellow eyes of patients with unilateral primary congenital glaucoma.
Both eyes of 33 children with unilateral PCG and 30 healthy, age-matched children, old enough to co-operate were analysed using high-resolution anterior segment spectral domain (SD) OCT. Subgroup analysis was done for the presence/absence of angle dysgenesis as defined by the presence of abnormal tissue/hyper-reflective membrane within angle recess and/or the absence of SC. Other anatomical landmarks differentiating the fellow eyes from eyes with glaucoma were also evaluated and compared with healthy subjects.
The presence of abnormal tissue at the angle and/or a hyper-reflective membranous structure covering the meshwork was seen in all affected PCG eyes (100%) and in 21 (63%) unaffected fellow eyes; p = 0.001. The SC could be seen in 8 (24%) affected in comparison with 29 (88%) fellow unaffected eyes; p = 0.001. The ASOCT scans of 54 (90%) healthy eyes and 3 (9%) fellow PCG eyes revealed a direct communication of anterior portion of the SC with the anterior chamber. Among the fellow eyes, a communication of the supraciliary space with anterior chamber could be discerned in 26 eyes (79%).
Despite angle dysgenesis, outflow channels such as the uveoscleral or a direct communication of SC with the anterior chamber play a role in preventing the development of glaucoma in fellow eyes of unilateral PCG.
© 2020 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.