BMC neurology 2017 04 2617(1) 81 doi 10.1186/s12883-017-0860-z
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is presented by a large heterogeneity of clinical phenotypes. Around 50% of patients suffer from typical CIDP and show better therapy response than atypical variants. The goal of our study was to search for cellular immunological differences in typical versus atypical CIDP in comparison to controls.
We evaluated 26 (9 typical, 17 atypical) patients with mainly active-unstable CIDP using clinical and immunological examinations (enzyme-linked immunospot assay ELISPOT, fluorescence-activated cell sorting FACS) in comparison to 28 healthy, age-matched controls (HC). Typical or atypical CIDP measurements were compared with HC using Kruskal-Wallis test.
Atypical CIDP patients showed increased frequencies of T cell subsets, especially CD4+ effector memory T cells (TEM) and CD4+ central memory T cells (TCM) as well as a tendency of higher T cell responses against the peripheral myelin antigens of PMP-22, P2, P0 and MBP peptides compared to typical CIDP. Searching for novel auto-antigens, we found that T cell responses against P0 180-199 as well as MBP 82-100 were significantly elevated in atypical CIDP patients vs. HC.
Our results indicate differences in underlying T cell responses between atypical and typical CIDP characterized by a higher peripheral myelin antigen-specific T cell responses as well as a specific altered CD4+ memory compartment in atypical CIDP. Larger multi-center studies study are warranted in order to characterize T cell auto-reactivity in atypical CIDP subgroups in order to establish immunological markers as a diagnostic tool.