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Differential degeneration of the ACTAGT sequence among Salmonella: a reflection of distinct nucleotide amelioration patterns during bacterial divergence.

Differential degeneration of the ACTAGT sequence among Salmonella: a reflection of distinct nucleotide amelioration patterns during bacterial divergence.
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Tang L, Mastriani E, Zhou YJ, Zhu S, Fang X, Liu YP, Liu WQ, Li YG, Johnston RN, Guo Z, Liu GR, Liu SL,


Tang L, Mastriani E, Zhou YJ, Zhu S, Fang X, Liu YP, Liu WQ, Li YG, Johnston RN, Guo Z, Liu GR, Liu SL, (click to view)

Tang L, Mastriani E, Zhou YJ, Zhu S, Fang X, Liu YP, Liu WQ, Li YG, Johnston RN, Guo Z, Liu GR, Liu SL,

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Scientific reports 2017 09 087(1) 10985 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-11226-9
Abstract

When bacteria diverge, they need to adapt to the new environments, such as new hosts or different tissues of the same host, by accumulating beneficial genomic variations, but a general scenario is unknown due to the lack of appropriate methods. Here we profiled the ACTAGT sequence and its degenerated forms (i.e., hexa-nucleotide sequences with one of the six nucleotides different from ACTAGT) in Salmonella to estimate the nucleotide amelioration processes of bacterial genomes. ACTAGT was mostly located in coding sequences but was also found in several intergenic regions, with its degenerated forms widely scattered throughout the bacterial genomes. We speculated that the distribution of ACTAGT and its degenerated forms might be lineage-specific as a consequence of different selection pressures imposed on ACTAGT at different genomic locations (in genes or intergenic regions) among different Salmonella lineages. To validate this speculation, we modelled the secondary structures of the ACTAGT-containing sequences conserved across Salmonella and many other enteric bacteria. Compared to ACTAGT at conserved regions, the degenerated forms were distributed throughout the bacterial genomes, with the degeneration patterns being highly similar among bacteria of the same phylogenetic lineage but radically different across different lineages. This finding demonstrates biased amelioration under distinct selection pressures among the bacteria and provides insights into genomic evolution during bacterial divergence.

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