Neuroradiology 2017 07 08() doi 10.1007/s00234-017-1870-7
We investigated whether diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) could detect pathological changes that occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD), multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P) or predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C), and progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS) and thus be used for differential diagnosis that is often difficult.
Seventy patients (41 with PD, 6 with MSA-P, 7 with MSA-C, 16 with PSPS) and 20 healthy controls were examined using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. From DKI and QSM data, we automatically obtained mean kurtosis (MK), fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity (MD) values of the midbrain tegmentum (MBT), pontine crossing tract (PCT), and superior/middle cerebellar peduncles (CPs), which were used to calculate diffusion MBT/PCT ratios (dMPRs) and diffusion superior/middle CP ratios (dCPRs), as well as MS (magnetic susceptibility) values of the anterior/posterior putamen (PUa and PUp) and globus pallidus (GP).
dMPRs of MK were significantly decreased in PSPS and increased in MSA-C compared with the other groups, while dCPRs of MK showed significant differences only between MSA-C and PD, PSPS, or control. MS values were significantly increased in the PUp of MSA-P and in the PUa and GP of PSPS compared with those in PD. The combined use of MK-dMPR and MS-PUp showed sensitivities of 83-100% and specificities of 81-100% for discriminating among the disease groups, respectively.
A quantitative assessment using DKI and QSM analyses, particularly MK-dMPR and MS-PUp values, can readily identify patients with parkinsonism.