Valproic acid (VPA) is a multifunctional medication used for the treatment of epilepsy, mania associated with bipolar disorder, and migraine. The pharmacological effects of VPA involve a variety of neurotransmitter and cell signaling systems, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its clinical efficacy is to date largely unknown. In this study, we used the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation shotgun proteomic analysis to screen differentially expressed proteins in VPA-treated SH-SY5Y cells. We identified changes in the expression levels of multiple proteins involved in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, chromatin remodeling, controlling gene expression via the vitamin D receptor, ribosome biogenesis, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain. Our data indicate that VPA may modulate the differential expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial function and vitamin D receptor-mediated chromatin transcriptional regulation and proteins implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.