World journal of gastroenterology 24(11) 1216-1227 doi 10.3748/wjg.v24.i11.1216
To describe the characteristics of people diagnosed with acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in British Columbia (BC).
We used data from the BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC), which includes all individuals tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or those diagnosed with HBV or active tuberculosis in BC since 1990. These data were integrated with prescription drug, medical visit, hospitalization and mortality data. HBV cases were classified as acute or chronic according to provincial guidelines. We compared characteristics of individuals by HBV infection group (acute, chronic and negative). Factors associated with acute or chronic HBV infection were assessed with multinomial logistic regression models in comparison to the HBV negative group.
46498 of the 1058056 eligible BC-HTC participants were diagnosed with HBV infection. 4.3% of HBV positive individuals were diagnosed with acute HBV infections while 95.7% had chronic infections. Problematic alcohol use, injection drug use, and HIV or HCV co-infection were more common among individuals diagnosed with acute HBV compared to those with chronic infections and HBV negative individuals. In multivariable multinomial logistic regression models, we observed significant associations between acute or chronic HBV diagnosis and being male, age at HBV diagnosis or birth cohort, South and East Asian ethnicity, HCV or HIV infection, and injection drug use. The odds of acute HBV decreased with increasing age among people who inject drugs, while the opposite was true for chronic HBV. Persons with acute HBV were predominantly White (78%) while those with chronic HBV were mostly East Asian (60%). Relative to Whites, East Asians had 12 times greater odds of being diagnosed with chronic HBV infection. These odds increased with increasing socioeconomic deprivation.
Differences in the profiles of people diagnosed with acute and chronic HBV infection necessitate differentiated screening, prevention, care and treatment programs.