Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common multifactorial disease that affects both children and adults. The precise process is not well known. Researchers hope to highlight the latest discoveries on the etiologies and pathophysiology of CRS in children, as well as evaluate recent studies on inflammatory patterns in the upper airways in children and adults with CRS, in this review. Only a few modest studies have been conducted to assess upper airway inflammation in children with CRS. These findings pointed to an eosinophilic and T-cell-driven inflammatory pattern. In children with CRS, cytokine patterns in the upper airways appear to correspond with asthma symptoms. Adult studies show eosinophilic and Th-2-driven inflammation in CRS with nasal polyps, but not in CRS without nasal polyps.

There is currently little known about the features of tissue inflammation in the upper airways of children with CRS. More research is needed to better understand the aetiology of CRS and to better characterise the subgroups of the disease. The outcomes of these research will lead to the identification of biological targets for treating this disease.

Reference:https://journals.lww.com/coallergy/Abstract/2016/02000/Direct_measurement_of_upper_airway_inflammation_in.5.aspx