ACS chemical biology 2017 10 12() doi 10.1021/acschembio.7b00550
Allosteric integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) bind to the lens epithelial-derived growth factor (LEDGF) pocket on HIV-1 integrase (IN) and possess potent antiviral effects. Rather than blocking proviral integration, ALLINIs trigger IN conformational changes that have catastrophic effects on viral maturation, rendering the virions assembled in the presence of ALLINIs non-infectious. A high-throughput screen for compounds that disrupt the IN·LEDGF interaction was executed, and extensive triage led to the identification of a t-butylsulfonamide series, as exemplified by 1. The chemical, biochemical and virological characterization of this series revealed that 1 and its analogs produce an ALLINI-like phenotype through engagement of IN sites distinct from the LEDGF pocket. Key to demonstrating target engagement and differentiating this new series from the existing ALLINIs was the development of a fluorescence polarization probe of IN (FLIPPIN) based on the t-butylsulfonamide series. These findings further solidify the late antiviral of mechanism of ALLINIs, and point towards opportunities to develop structurally and mechanistically novel antiretroviral agents with unique resistance patterns.