PloS one 2017 06 2912(6) e0179616 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0179616
We previously reported a significant reduction in the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) from 2007 to 2012 in people who inject drugs (PWID; 35.9% to 18.5%, p < 0.001) and female sex workers (FSW; 23.1% to 9.8%, p < 0.05), but not in blood donors (BD) or pregnant women, in Haiphong, Vietnam. Our aim in the present study was to assess trends in the prevalence of infection with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV, respectively). We also investigated the coinfection rates of HBV and HCV with HIV in the same groups. Between 2007 and 2012, HBV prevalence was significantly decreased in BD (18.1% vs. 9.0%, p = 0.007) and slightly decreased in FSW (11.0% vs. 3.9%, p = 0.21), but not in PWID (10.7% vs. 11.1%, p = 0.84). HCV prevalence was significantly decreased in PWID (62.1% in 2007 vs. 42.7% in 2008, p < 0.0001), but it had rebounded to 58.4% in 2012 (2008 vs. 2012, p < 0.0001). HCV prevalence also increased in FSW: 28.6% in 2007 and 2009 vs. 35.3% in 2012; however, this difference was not significant (2007 vs. 2012, p = 0.41). Rates of coinfection with HBV and HCV among HIV-infected PWID and FSW did not change significantly during the study period. Our findings suggest that the current harm reduction programs designed to prevent HIV transmission in PWID and FSW may be insufficient to prevent the transmission of hepatitis viruses, particularly HCV, in Haiphong, Vietnam. New approaches, such as the introduction of catch-up HBV vaccination to vulnerable adult populations and the introduction of HCV treatment as prevention, should be considered to reduce morbidity and mortality due to HIV and hepatitis virus coinfection in Vietnam.