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Disparate Contributions of Human Retrovirus Capsid Subdomains to Gag-Gag Oligomerization, Virus Morphology, and Particle Biogenesis.

Disparate Contributions of Human Retrovirus Capsid Subdomains to Gag-Gag Oligomerization, Virus Morphology, and Particle Biogenesis.
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Martin JL, Mendonça LM, Angert I, Mueller JD, Zhang W, Mansky LM,


Martin JL, Mendonça LM, Angert I, Mueller JD, Zhang W, Mansky LM, (click to view)

Martin JL, Mendonça LM, Angert I, Mueller JD, Zhang W, Mansky LM,

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Journal of virology 2017 06 2691(14) pii 10.1128/JVI.00298-17

Abstract

The capsid domain (CA) of the retroviral Gag protein is a primary determinant of Gag oligomerization, which is a critical step for immature Gag lattice formation and virus particle budding. Although the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CA carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) is essential for CA-CA interactions, the CA CTD has been suggested to be largely dispensable for human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) particle biogenesis. To more clearly define the roles of the HTLV-1 CA amino-terminal domain (NTD) and CA CTD in particle biogenesis, we generated and analyzed a panel of Gag proteins with chimeric HIV-1/HTLV-1 CA domains. Subcellular distribution and protein expression levels indicated that Gag proteins with a chimeric HIV-1 CA NTD/HTLV-1 CA CTD did not result in Gag oligomerization regardless of the parent Gag background. Furthermore, chimeric Gag proteins with the HTLV-1 CA NTD produced particles phenotypically similar to HTLV-1 immature particles, highlighting the importance of the HTLV-1 CA NTD in HTLV-1 immature particle morphology. Taken together, these observations support the conclusion that the HTLV-1 CA NTD can functionally replace the HIV-1 CA CTD, but the HIV-1 CA NTD cannot replace the HTLV-1 CA CTD, indicating that the HTLV-1 CA subdomains provide distinct contributions to Gag-Gag oligomerization, particle morphology, and biogenesis. Furthermore, we have shown for the first time that HIV-1 and HTLV-1 Gag domains outside the CA (e.g., matrix and nucleocapsid) impact Gag oligomerization as well as immature particle size and morphology.IMPORTANCE A key aspect in virus replication is virus particle assembly, which is a poorly understood process for most viruses. For retroviruses, the Gag structural protein is the primary driver of virus particle biogenesis, and the CA CTD is the primary determinant of Gag-Gag interactions for HIV-1. In this study, the HTLV-1 capsid amino-terminal domain was found to provide distinct contributions to Gag-Gag oligomerization, particle morphology, and biogenesis. This study provides information that will aid efforts for discovery of therapeutic targets for intervention.

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