Notwithstanding being the object of a growing field of clinical research, the investigation of the dynamic resting-state functional connectivity alterations in psychiatric illnesses is still in its early days. Current research on major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) has evidenced abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC), especially in regions subserving emotional processing and regulation such as the amygdala. However, dynamic changes in functional connectivity within the amygdalar subregions in distinguishing BD and MDD has not yet been fully understood. In this paper, we aim at analyzing the patterns characterizing dynamic FC (dFC) in the right amygdala to investigate the differences between similarly depressed BD and MDD. A number of 40 BD patients, 61 MDD patients and 63 healthy controls (HCs) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at rest. Using the right-amygdala as seed region, we compared the dFC within three subdivisions, namely, laterobasal (LB), centromedial (CM) and superficial (SF) between all the groups. To do so, one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc t-tests were employed. Compared to HCs, patients with BD had a decreased dFC between right LB and the left postcentral gyrus as well as an increased dFC between right CM and the right cerebellum.Compared to BD patients, patients with MDD showed a decreased dFC between right CM and the cerebellum and an increased dFC between right LB and the left postcentral gyrus. These findings present initial evidence that abnormal patterns of the right-amygdalar subregions shared by BD and MDD supports the differential pathophysiology of these disorders.
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