As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak accelerates worldwide, it is highly significant to evaluate sex-specific clinical characteristics and outcomes, that may affect public health policies.
COVID-19 patients admitted to Tongji Hospital between January 18and March 27, 2020 were evaluated. Clinical features, laboratory data, complications and outcomes were compared between females and males. Risk factors for mortality in the whole population, females and males were determined respectively.
There were 1667 (50.38%) females among the3309 patients included in this study. The mortality rate was only 5.9% in females but 12.7% in males. Compared with males, more females had no initial symptoms (11.1% vs 8.3%, p=0.008). Complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, septic shock, cardiac injury and coagulation disorder were less common in females; critical illness was also significant less common in females (31.1% vs 39.4%, p<0.0001). Significantly fewer female patients received antibiotics treatment (p=0.001), antiviral therapy (p=0.025) glucocorticoids treatment (p<0.0001), mechanical ventilation (p<0.0001) and had Intensive Care Unit admission (p<0.0001). A lower risk of death was found in females (odds ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.34-0.58) after adjusting for age and coexisting diseases. Among females, age, malignancy, chronic kidney disease and days from onset to admission were significant associated with mortality, while chronic kidney disease was not risk factor in males.
Significantly more mild illness and fewer deaths were found in female COVID-19 inpatients and risk factors associated with mortality varied among male and female population.
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