Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) may develop sporadically or in the context of hereditary syndromes. In patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), PNET is the leading cause of death. Our aim was to compare the mortality risk in sporadic and MEN1-related PNETs and identify high-risk populations. A retrospective Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database analysis of patients with PNET was used. Patients with MEN1 were defined by syn/metachronous pituitary adenoma. Clinical data were retrieved, and all-cause mortality (ACM) risk was compared in univariate and multivariable analyses. The cohort included 569 patients (46.6% males) with sporadic (n=542) and MEN1-related (n=27) PNETs. Age at diagnosis of MEN1-related PNET was significantly younger than with sporadic PNETs (mean age 49.2±16.7 vs. 61.6±12.7 years, respectively; p < 0.001). Survival analysis showed a trend for a better outcome in patients with MEN1-related vs. sporadic PNET (Log-rank, p=0.09) and in subgroup analysis for patients with advanced disease (p=0.08). Furthermore, among patients followed expectantly, those with MEN1-related PNET had lower ACM risk than their sporadic counterparts (p=0.08). Multivariable analysis demonstrated lower ACM risk in patients diagnosed with MEN1 (hazard ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.11-1.2, p=0.09), further supporting the trend detected in the univariate analysis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the distinct clinical profile of patients with MEN1-related PNET compared to sporadic disease and emphasizes the expertise required to accurately manage patients with PNET in this rare context. The cautious decision-making required before embarking on surgical intervention is further emphasized in this robust analysis of a large cancer database.
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