We aimed to estimate the supply of ophthalmologists in relation to the global and regional burden of vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR). Diabetes mellitus (DM) population data from seven world regions were obtained from the International Diabetes Federation Atlas 2017. A systematic review was performed to include population-, community-based studies that reported country-specific VTDR prevalence. Random effect meta-analysis was then performed to estimate global and regional VTDR prevalence. VTDR prevalence estimates coupled with DM population data were then used to estimate the number of VTDR cases. Global and regional number of ophthalmologists were derived from the International Council of Ophthalmology Report 2015. Fifty studies (17 from Western Pacific [WP], nine North America and Caribbean [NAC], nine Middle East and North Africa [MENA], five Europe, eight South East Asia [SEA], one South and Central America [SACA] and one from Africa) were included. Global VTDR prevalence was 7.26% (95% CI, 6.18-8.32%). Regional VTDR prevalence was 14.35% in Africa, 11.21% in MENA, 10.00% in NAC, 6.32% in Europe, 6.22% in WP, 5.83% in SACA and 2.97% in SEA. Globally, there were 7.16 ophthalmologists per 1000 VTDR patients. Europe had the highest ophthalmologist per 1000 VTDR patient ratio at 18.03 followed by SACA (17.41), while NAC, MENA and Africa had the lowest at 4.90, 4.81 and 0.91 respectively. Across regions, the ophthalmologist densities ranged from 0.91 to 18.03 per 1000 VTDR patients, with NAC, MENA and Africa having less than 5 ophthalmologists per 1000 patients. These findings will aid global and regional policy planning and healthcare resource allocation for VTDR management.