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Docosahexaenoic acid antagonizes the boosting effect of palmitic acid on LPS inflammatory signaling by inhibiting gene transcription and ceramide synthesis.

Docosahexaenoic acid antagonizes the boosting effect of palmitic acid on LPS inflammatory signaling by inhibiting gene transcription and ceramide synthesis.
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Jin J, Lu Z, Li Y, Cowart LA, Lopes-Virella MF, Huang Y,


Jin J, Lu Z, Li Y, Cowart LA, Lopes-Virella MF, Huang Y, (click to view)

Jin J, Lu Z, Li Y, Cowart LA, Lopes-Virella MF, Huang Y,

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PloS one 2018 02 2313(2) e0193343 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0193343
Abstract

It is well known that saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and unsaturated fatty acid, in particular omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), have different effects on inflammatory signaling: SFAs are pro-inflammatory but n-3 PUFAs have strong anti-inflammatory properties. We have reported that palmitic acid (PA), a saturated fatty acid, robustly amplifies lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling to upregulate proinflammatory gene expression in macrophages. We also reported that the increased production of ceramide (CER) via sphingomyelin (SM) hydrolysis and CER de novo synthesis plays a key role in the synergistic effect of LPS and PA on proinflammatory gene expression. However, it remains unclear if n-3 PUFAs are capable of antagonizing the synergistic effect of LPS and PA on gene expression and CER production. In this study, we employed the above macrophage culture system and lipidomical analysis to assess the effect of n-3 PUFAs on proinflammatory gene expression and CER production stimulated by LPS and PA. Results showed that DHA strongly inhibited the synergistic effect of LPS and PA on proinflammatory gene expression by targeting nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB)-dependent gene transcription. Results also showed that DHA inhibited the cooperative effect of LPS and PA on CER production by targeting CER de novo synthesis, but not SM hydrolysis. Furthermore, results showed that myriocin, a specific inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase, strongly inhibited both LPS-PA-stimulated CER synthesis and proinflammatory gene expression, indicating that CER synthesis is associated with proinflammatory gene expression and that inhibition of CER synthesis contributes to DHA-inhibited proinflammatory gene expression. Taken together, this study demonstrates that DHA antagonizes the boosting effect of PA on LPS signaling on proinflammatory gene expression by targeting both NFκB-dependent transcription and CER de novo synthesis in macrophages.

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