Menopause is associated with disturbances in the metabolism of lipids. Moreover, during the postmenopausal period, female subjects are more prone to develop dyslipidemia. Omega-3 fatty acids, which exert cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering actions, are commonly recommended in postmenopausal women. However, their effect on serum lipids in this population remains unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to clarify this research question.
We systematically searched the Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed/MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases from their inception until January 3, 2022. The DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model was used to combine effect sizes.
Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation resulted in a decrease in triglyceride concentrations (weighted mean difference [WMD], -17.8 mg/dL; 95% CI, -26 to -9.6; P < 0.001), particularly in the RCTs that lasted ≤16 weeks (WMD, -18.6 mg/dL), when the baseline triglyceride concentrations were ≥150 mg/dL (WMD, -22.8 mg/dL), in individuals with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m (WMD, -19.3 mg/dL), and when the dose of omega-3 fatty acids was ≥1 g/d (WMD, -21.10 mg/dL). LDL-C (WMD, 4.1 mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.80 to 6.36; P < 0.001) and HDL-C (WMD, 2.1 mg/dL; 95% CI, 0.97 to 3.2; P < 0.001) values increased. Total cholesterol levels (WMD, -0.15 mg/dL; 95% CI, -4 to 3.74; P = 0.94) remained unchanged after administration of omega-3 fatty acids.
In postmenopausal women, supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids resulted in a significant reduction in triglyceride concentrations and a modest elevation in HDL-C and LDL-C levels, whereas this intervention did not affect total cholesterol values.

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