Air pollution is caused by exhaust emissions from motor vehicles, fuel consumption for heating of residences, and especially emissions from industrial facilities around the world. The exposure to outdoor air pollution has been associated with acute and chronic health problems, from irritation to death. In this study, we aimed to determine whether air pollution increases the frequency of hospital admission and whether there is a difference between disease subgroups, age, and gender, in the 2-year period in Izmir province where – air pollution is increasing.
Collection of health data for the project compiled by the Ministry of Health, in cooperation with the Izmir Provincial Health Directory Information Processing Department, and information obtained on the age groups, gender, admission time, and diagnosis of illness [International Classification of Diseases (ICD)10 code] on the residents of Izmir in 2016/2017.
The daily numbers of patients with respiratory complaints and air pollution were found to be related. Both air pollution and the admission rate increase in the January-March period. In male patients, the risk of hospitalization increases for 1.14%. Males had a higher increase in the rate of diagnosis of chronic rhinitis (increase of 6.22%) than females who had an increase of 0.97%. It was observed that there was a 2.62% increase in the incidence of bronchiectasis, 2.53% in that of asthma, and 2.49% in that of dyspnea.
There was a significant increase in respiratory diseases during the days when the air pollution was high, and this was observed as the upper respiratory tract infection and acute bronchitis in the young group and chronic respiratory diseases in the elderly group upon hospital admissions. The reduction of air pollutants and inhalation of clean air are the most important aspects in providing a healthier and longer life.