Journal of medicinal chemistry 2017 05 19() doi 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b00440
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT)-associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) remains the only virally encoded enzymatic function yet to be exploited as an antiviral target. One of the possible challenges may be that targeting HIV RNase H is confronted with a steep substrate barrier. We have previously reported a 3-hydroxypyrimidine-2,4-dione (HPD) subtype that potently and selectively inhibited RNase H without inhibiting HIV in cell culture. We report herein a critical redesign of the HPD chemotype featuring an additional wing at the C5 position that led to drastically improved RNase H inhibition and significant antiviral activity. Structure-activity-relationship (SAR) concerning primarily the length and flexibility of the two wings revealed important structural features that dictate the potency and selectivity of RNase H inhibition as well as the observed antiviral activity. Our current medicinal chemistry data also revealed a correlation between RNase H biochemical inhibition and the antiviral activity.