Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a very common disorder with important day and nighttime symptoms and long-term effects on health. Different treatment modalities such as positive airway pressure (PAP), oral appliance therapy using custom-made, titratable mandibular advancement devices (MAD), different types of surgery and positional therapy have been introduced over the years, with patient preference and adherence to therapy being key elements in improving treatment outcomes. Several patient selection tools to improve treatment outcomes have been introduced and evaluated over the years. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is a procedure that provides real-time upper airway evaluation of the sites of flutter and upper airway collapse. This review focuses on the indications and contraindications for DISE, methods of sedation and evaluation, add-on maneuvers, and the results on patient selection and treatment outcomes. A PICO approach was used to clarify the aims of this review. DISE has the advantage of being easily accessible in most ENT practices and being 3-dimensional, dynamic, site specific, safe and it is valuable in selecting patients for upper airway surgery and oral appliance therapy. There is a strong interest for further standardization and exploration of the predictive value of this evolving technique.
© 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel.