To assess symptoms and signs of the dry anophthalmic socket syndrome (DASS) in a standardized manner.
87 unilateral anophthalmic patients were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), the 5-Item Dry Eye Questionnaire (DEQ-5), and a modified version of Symptom Assessment iN Dry Eye (SANDE) questionnaire separately for the anophthalmic socket and for the healthy fellow eye. Conjunctival inflammation was semi-quantitatively graded and Schirmer I test with topical anesthesia was performed bilaterally. The correlations between scores of the dry eye questionnaires and the results of the Schirmer tests, conjunctival inflammation, and demographic data were examined.
Patients had significantly higher OSDI, DEQ-5 and SANDE scores at the anophthalmic side compared to the healthy eye (p ≤ 0.019, respectively). 63% of patients complained of anophthalmic socket dryness in at least one of the three questionnaires. Patients had higher inflammation (p < 0.001) and more tear volume in the Schirmer I test with topical anesthesia (p ≤ 0.024) on the anophthalmic side compared to the fellow eye.
Most anophthalmic patients have significantly more subjective dryness complaints on their anophthalmic side compared to the healthy fellow eye, even in absence of tear deficiency and clinical blepharitis. Eye care practitioners should consider the diagnosis criteria and the definition for DASS proposed in this study, when counseling anophthalmic patients. However, research should be undertaken to investigate the role and the interactions of causative etiological causes for DASS. Furthermore, there is a high priority to establish a standardized examination protocol and to develop an evidence-based treatment algorithm for DASS.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.