To evaluate dry eye and quantitative and qualitative changes of meibomian glands with meibography in patients with pemphigus.
Twenty left eyes of 20 patients with pemphigus (group 1) and 20 left eyes of 20 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (group 2) were enrolled. Dry eye was evaluated with Oxford scale scoring, tear film breakup time, Schirmer 1 tests, and Ocular Surface Disease Index score assessments. Morphological changes and dropout ratio of meibomian glands were evaluated by upper and lower eyelid meibography (SL-D701; Topcon, IJssel, The Netherlands). Meibomian gland dropout ratio was scored for each eyelid from grade 0 (no loss) through grade 3 (lost area >2/3 of the total meibomian gland area).
The mean ages of group 1 and group 2 were 51.8 ± 11.1 (range: 32-73) and 50.4 ± 9.6 years (range: 32-70), respectively (P = 0.672). Schirmer 1 and tear film breakup time values were lower and Oxford and Ocular Surface Disease Index scores were higher in group 1 when compared with group 2, and the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.01, P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Upper eyelid, lower eyelid, and total eyelid meiboscore values were significantly higher in group 1 (P = 0.005, P = 0.018, and P = 0.002, respectively). Morphological changes in meibomian glands were detected in 16 eyes (80%) among group 1.
Between patients with pemphigus and those who were healthy, there were significant differences in the results of dry eye tests and meibomian gland morphology. Patients with pemphigus should be monitored for dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction and be promptly treated to prevent the serious consequences of dry eye.