Although conventional CT imaging is an effective technique for detecting nephrolithiasis, it is restricted in its capacity to identify stone composition. Dual-energy CT (DECT) scans have shown potential in circumventing this restriction. The study reviews the current utility of DECT in nephrolithiasis. DECT outperforms conventional CT in distinguishing uric acid stones from non-uric acid stones, with several studies finding sensitivities and specificities of greater than 95%. Low-dose CT scans, which provide substantially lower effective radiation doses than standard CT, are widely employed in dose reduction procedures.
DECT can identify uric acid stones with high accuracy, which can advise which stones are suited for medical dissolution. More research on the efficacy of DECT in guiding the therapy of patients with nephrolithiasis can assist to encourage its broader usage.