Silent information regulator-1 (SIRT-1), is a member of the class III group of histone deacetylases and is collectively called sirtuins. There have been preclinical and clinical studies indicating the downregulation and decreased activity of sirtuin 1 in various inflammatory bowel disease models. Furthermore, the downregulation of sirtuin 1 is responsible for the sustained production of proinflammatory cytokines and the generation of oxidative stress in colitis. Hyperacetylation of NF-κB and HSF-1 (heat shock factor-1) in the absence of sirtuin1 is responsible for the induction of colitis. Accordingly, exogenous administration of sirtuin1 activators has been shown to attenuate the colitis in various inflammatory bowel disease models. On the other hand, the knockdown of sirtuin 1 gene or pharmacologic inhibition of sirtuin 1 has also been shown to be protective in the colitis. The deletion of the sirtuin1 gene may be helpful in the improvement of the disease condition of colitis through the maintenance of gastrointestinal immune homeostasis. The current review highlights the dual role of sirtuin 1 in the different experimental models of IBD along with possible mechanisms.