Accumulative evidence of using double stranded (ds) RNA encapsulated into virus like particle (VLP) nanocarrier has open feasibility to fight against shrimp viral infection in aquaculture field. In this study, we co-encapsulated VP37 and VP28 dsRNA into hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) like particle and investigated its protection against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Five micrograms of each dsRNA were used as starting materials to load into VLP, while the loading efficiency was slightly different, i.e, VP37 dsRNA had somewhat a better load into VLP’s cavity. It was apparent that co-encapsulation of dual dsRNA showed a superior WSSV silencing ability than the single dsRNA counterpart as evidence by the lower WSSV gene expression and its copy number in the gill tissues. Besides, we also demonstrated that co-encapsulated dual dsRNA into IHHNV-VLP stimulated the increased number of hemocytes and the corresponding PO activity as well as up-regulated proPO gene expression in hemocytes to resist viral invasion after an acute stage of WSSV infection. This synergistic action of dual dsRNA encapsulated into IHHNV-VLPs could thus act to delay time of shrimp death and reduced shrimp cumulative mortality greater than the single, naked dsRNA treatment and positive control groups. The obtaining results would encourage the feasibility to use it as a new weapon to fight WSSV infection in shrimp aquaculture.
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