In nonneutropenic patients with underlying respiratory diseases (URD), invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening disease. Yet establishing early diagnosis in those patients remains quite a challenge.
A retrospective series of nonneutropenic patients with probable or proven IPA were reviewed from January 2014 to May 2018 in Department of Respiratory Medicine of two Chinese hospitals. Those patients were suspected of IPA and underwent lung computed tomography (CT) scans twice within 5-21 days. The items required for IPA diagnosis were assessed by their host factors, mycological findings and CT scans according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (MSG) criteria (EORTC/MSG criteria).
Together with the risk factors, mycological findings and nonspecific radiological signs on first CT, ten patients were suspected of IPA. With the appearance of cavities on second CT scan in the following days, all patients met the criteria of probable or possible IPA. Except one patient who refused antifungal treatment, nine patients received timely antifungal treatment and recovered well. One of the nine treated IPA cases was further confirmed by pathology, one was confirmed by biopsy.
Dynamic monitor of CT scan provided specific image evidences for IPA diagnosis. This novel finding might provide a noninvasive and efficient strategy in IPA diagnosis with URD.