To investigate the effect of graphene oxide (GO)-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) hydrogel loaded with interleukin 4 (IL-4) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) on macrophages M2 type differentiation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).
GO solution was mixed with CMC, then the phosphate buffered saline (PBS), IL-4, BMP-2, or IL-4+BMP-2 were added to prepare different GO-CMC hydrogel scaffolds with or without different cytokines under crosslinking agents. The characteristics of pure GO-CMC hydrogel were characterized by gross observation, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the CMC hydrogel was used as control. The sustained release of GO-CMC hydrogels with different cytokines was also tested. Macrophages were isolated and cultured from female Sprague Dawley rats aged 4-5 weeks, and then cultured with GO-CMC hydrogels with and without different cytokines, respectively. CD206 immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the differentiation of macrophages after 24 hours. The 3rd generation of rats BMSCs were cultured with GO-CMC hydrogels with and without different cytokines respectively for osteogenic induction. The early osteogenesis was observed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining after 10 days, and the late osteogenesis was observed by alizarin red staining after 21 days.
Generally, GO-CMC hydrogel was brown and translucent. SEM showed that the pore diameter and wall thickness of GO-CMC hydrogel were similar to that of CMC hydrogel, but the inner wall roughness increased. FTIR test showed that CMC polymerized to form hydrogel. , the sustained release experiments showed that the properties of GO-CMC hydrogels loaded with different cytokines were similar. CD206 immunofluorescence detection showed that GO-CMC hydrogels could induce macrophages differentiation into M2-type. ALP and alizarin red staining showed that GO-CMC hydrogels could induce BMSCs osteogenic differentiation, in which GO-CMC hydrogel loaded with IL-4+BMP-2 showed the most significant effect ( <0.05).
The GO-CMC hydrogel loaded with IL-4 and BMP-2 can induce macrophages differentiation into M2-type and enhance the ability of BMSCs with osteogenic differentiation , which provide a new strategy for bone defect repair and immune regulation.