Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation is characterized by adequate dilation of the outflow vein. Even though preoperative ultrasound mapping (PUM) is used to identify vessels meeting threshold diameters for surgical AVF creation, it is not conducive to improving AVF maturation rates. This study aims to examine the PUM criteria to improve AVF maturation.

This is a retrospective study that included a total of 300 catheter-dependent patients with a recently created AVF. The overall maturation, unassisted AVF maturation, and the associations of preoperative vascular measurements were evaluated. The primary outcome of the study was preoperative factors associated with overall and unassisted AVF maturation identified using multivariable logistic regression.

The findings suggested that the overall AVF maturation was associated with the preoperative arterial diameter (adjusted OR 1.36) and preoperative systolic BP (aOR 1.17). The unassisted AVF maturation was linked to preoperative arterial diameter (aOR 1.50), preoperative systolic BP (1.16), and left ventricular ejection fraction (1.07). Receiver operating curves suggested that preoperative arterial diameter, preoperative systolic BP, and left ventricular ejection fraction were significant predictors of unassisted AVF maturation.

The research concluded that preoperative arterial diameter and preoperative systolic BP could be a potential predictor of both overall and assistive AVF maturation.