Significant numbers of chronic obstructive respiratory disease patients are readmitted for Acute Exacerbation (AE) within 30 days of discharge. And these early readmissions have serious clinical and socioeconomic consequences. The objective of our study was to determine the rate of readmission within 30 days of discharge and it’s predictors among patients treated for acute exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
A prospective cohort study involving 130 patients (asthma = 59, COPD = 71) was conducted from April-September, 2019, in Jimma Medical Center (JMC), South-West Ethiopia. Socio-demographic, clinical, laboratory, and drug-related data were recorded at admission and during hospital stay. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for readmissions following an AE of asthma and COPD.
During the study period, 130 (male, 78(60%)) patients were admitted with AE of asthma and COPD. The median age was 59(IQR, 50-70) years. Of 130 patients, 21(18.10%) had a new AE of asthma and COPD that required hospitalization in the 30 days after discharge. The overall median survival time to 30-day readmission was 20 days (IQR, 16-29). Multivariate analysis revealed prolonged use of oxygen therapy (AHR = 4.972, 95% CI [1.041-23.736] and frequent hospital admissions (AHR = 11.482 [1.308-100.793]) to be independent risk factors for early readmissions.
Early hospital readmission rates for AE of asthma and COPD were alarmingly high. Frequent hospital admission and long-term oxygen therapy during hospital stay were independent predictors of 30-day readmission.

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