Results of a systematic review indicate that three simple crowding measures appear to be linked to quality of care. Of 15 crowding measures with links to quality of care, the three most frequently linked were:

  1. Number of patients in the waiting room.
  2. ED occupancy (percentage of ED beds filled)
  3. Number of admitted patients in the ED awaiting inpatient beds.

Source:  Academic Emergency Medicine, June 2015.