Eating breakfast is associated with improved energy levels, metabolism, and blood sugar levels. But some studies also associate breakfast with increased weight gain. This study aims to assess the effect of breakfast on weight and energy intake.
This is a systematic review and meta-analysis conducted using the datasets of Ovid Medline, CINAHL, and PubMed. A total of 13 randomized controlled trials in adults comparing breakfast consumption with no breakfast consumption with measurements of body weight and energy intake were included. The primary outcome of the study was the energy intake and change in weight.
The meta-analysis did not discover a significant difference in weight-favoring participants who skipped breakfast. However, the trial results had some inconsistency. Participants assigned to breakfast had an overall higher energy intake than those assigned to skip breakfast. Besides, participants assigned to breakfast had higher energy intake (MD 259.79 kcal/day) than those who skipped breakfast. However, most of the results in the trial are not clear with inconsistent follow-ups.
The research suggested that skipping breakfast is not significantly associated with losing weight. Moreover, skipping breakfast may also be associated with lower energy levels. Therefore, caution is required when skipping breakfast for weight loss in adults.