BACKGROUND A previous phase 3 clinical trial in de novo adult kidney transplant recipients (NCT01187953) compared the efficacy and safety of once-daily LCP-tacrolimus (LCPT) and twice-daily immediate-release tacrolimus (IR-Tac). However, whether the rate of tacrolimus metabolism affects outcomes between LCPT and IR-Tac was not examined. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients were initiated on 0.17 mg/kg/day LCPT or 0.1 mg/kg/day IR-Tac, with doses adjusted over time to maintain target therapeutic trough concentrations. This post hoc analysis examined dosing trends, relative efficacy, and safety of LCPT (n=247) and IR-Tac (n=249) in slow, intermediate, and rapid metabolizers as defined by concentration/dose ratios at day 30. RESULTS For all metabolizer subgroups, minimum target tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained more rapidly with LCPT than with IR-Tac. Slow metabolizers were more likely to exceed target trough concentrations with LCPT, while rapid metabolizers were more likely to fall below target trough concentrations with IR-Tac. Regardless of metabolizer status, significant differences were not detected between LCPT and IR-Tac for treatment failure, death, graft failure, biopsy-proven acute rejection, estimated glomerular filtration rate, or other clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Although within metabolizer subgroups, attainment of target trough concentrations in the first week differed between LCPT and IR-Tac, these results suggest that, regardless of metabolizer phenotype, clinical outcomes do not differ between these formulations when dose adjustments are made.