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Effect of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus replication on intestinal mucosal gene expression and microbiome composition of HIV-infected and uninfected individuals.

Effect of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus replication on intestinal mucosal gene expression and microbiome composition of HIV-infected and uninfected individuals.
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Gianella S, Chaillon A, Mutlu EA, Engen PA, Voigt RM, Keshavarzian A, Losurdo J, Chakradeo P, Lada SM, Nakazawa M, Landay AL,


Gianella S, Chaillon A, Mutlu EA, Engen PA, Voigt RM, Keshavarzian A, Losurdo J, Chakradeo P, Lada SM, Nakazawa M, Landay AL, (click to view)

Gianella S, Chaillon A, Mutlu EA, Engen PA, Voigt RM, Keshavarzian A, Losurdo J, Chakradeo P, Lada SM, Nakazawa M, Landay AL,

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AIDS (London, England) 31(15) 2059-2067 doi 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001579

Abstract
BACKGROUND
HIV-infection is associated with dramatic changes in the intestinal mucosa. The impact of other viral pathogens is unclear.

METHODS
One hundred and eight (108) biopsies from left and right colon (n = 79) and terminal ileum (n = 29) were collected from 19 HIV-infected and 22 HIV-uninfected participants. Levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA were measured by droplet digital PCR. Mucosal gene expression was measured via multiplex-assay. Microbiome analysis was performed using bacterial 16S-rDNA-pyrosequencing. The effect of CMV and EBV replication on the microbiome composition and mRNA-expression of selected cytokines (IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-1β, CCL2, IL-8, and IFN-β1) was evaluated.

RESULTS
Overall, CMV and EBV were detected in at least one intestinal site in 60.5 and 78.9% of participants, respectively. HIV-infected individuals demonstrated less detectable CMV (P = 0.04); CMV was more frequently detected in terminal ileum than colon (P = 0.04). Detectable EBV was more frequent among HIV-infected (P = 0.05) without differences by intestinal site. The number of operational taxonomic units did not differ by CMV or EBV detection status. Among HIV-infected participants, higher CMV was only associated with lower relative abundance of Actinobacteria in the ileum (P = 0.03). Presence of CMV was associated with upregulated expression of all selected cytokines in the ileum (all P = 0.02) and higher expression of IL-8 and IFN-β1 in the colon (all P < 0.05) of HIV-uninfected participants, but not among HIV-infected. EBV had no effect on cytokine expression or microbiome composition whatsoever. CONCLUSION
These results illustrate a complex interplay among HIV-infection, intestinal CMV replication, and mucosal gut environment, and highlight a possible modulatory effect of CMV on the microbial and immune homeostasis.

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