BMC nephrology 2017 08 1518(1) 268 doi 10.1186/s12882-017-0686-3
Tolvaptan slows progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by antagonizing the vasopressin-cAMP axis. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates natriuresis and diuresis, but its role is unknown during tolvaptan treatment in ADPKD.
Eighteen patients with ADPKD received tolvaptan 60 mg or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. L-NMMA (L-NG-monomethyl-arginine) was given as a bolus followed by continuous infusion during 60 min. We measured: GFR, urine output (UO), free water clearance (CH2O), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 channels (u-AQP2) and epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaCγ), plasma concentrations of vasopressin (p-AVP), renin (PRC), angiotensinII (p-AngII), aldosterone (p-Aldo), and central blood pressure (cBP).
During tolvaptan with NO-inhibition, a more pronounced decrease was measured in UO, CH2O (61% vs 43%) and FENa (46% vs 41%) after placebo than after tolvaptan; GFR and u-AQP2 decreased to the same extent; p-AVP increased three fold, whereas u-ENaCγ, PRC, p-AngII, and p-Aldo remained unchanged. After NO-inhibition, GFR increased after placebo and remained unchanged after tolvaptan (5% vs -6%). Central diastolic BP (CDBP) increased to a higher level after placebo than tolvaptan. Body weight fell during tolvaptan treatment.
During NO inhibition, tolvaptan antagonized both the antidiuretic and the antinatriuretic effect of L-NMMA, partly via an AVP-dependent mechanism. U-AQP2 was not changed by tolvaptan, presumeably due to a counteracting effect of elevated p-AVP. The reduced GFR during tolvaptan most likely is caused by the reduction in extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure.
Clinical Trial no: NCT02527863 . Registered 18 February 2015.