Vitamin D enhances the regulation and maintenance of calcium and phosphorous levels in the blood, resulting in healthy bones. However, the exact effects of vitamin D supplementation of musculoskeletal health are controversial. This study aims to investigate how vitamin D supplementation affects the outcomes of fractures, falls, and bone density.

This systematic review and meta-analysis included 81 randomized controlled trials that reported fracture (n=42), falls (n=37), and bone mineral density (n=41). The study consisted of randomized controlled trials of adults aged 18 or more that compared the effects of vitamin D supplementation. The primary outcomes of the study were at least one fracture, one hip fracture, and at least one fall.

A total of 53,537 patients were examined in the study. The findings suggested that vitamin D did not affect the incidence rate of fracture (relative risk 1.00), hip fracture (RR 1.11), or falls (0.97). Furthermore, the results were similar in trials with low-dose and high-dose vitamin supplementation. The pooled analysis indicated no clinically significant between-group differences in bone mineral density.

The research concluded that vitamin D supplementation did not reduce the risk of fractures, hip fractures, and falls. Vitamin D did not have any clinically relevant effects on bone mineral density.