Ultrasound-guided thermal ablation has recently gained popularity as a less invasive therapy for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). However, solid data for the effectiveness of thermal ablation in treating pHPT is lacking. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of thermal ablation for pHPT. Data from patients who had thermal ablation for pHPT at four different sites were examined retrospectively from January 2015 to March 2020. The average period of follow-up was 18.1 months. A cure was defined as the restoration of normal blood calcium and intact parathyroid hormone levels during the course of at least 6 months of follow-up. The treatment’s technical success, efficacy, and safety were examined. A total of 119 individuals were included in the study, with 134 parathyroid nodules. The parathyroid glands had a maximal diameter of 1.6 0.9 cm on average. Microwave ablation (MWA) was performed on 96 patients, while radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed on 23 patients (RFA). The technical success rate was 98.3 percent, with an 89.9 percent cure rate. The greatest diameter of the treated patients differed significantly from the individuals who did not have the target lesions ablate. The cure rate was 95% in all patients except those with pHPT nodules smaller than 0.6 cm in diameter. At 6 months, there was no difference in cure rates between the MWA and RFA groups. At 12 months, the volume reduction rate of the ablation zone was 94.6 percent. Complications occurred at a rate of 6.7%. Other symptoms spontaneously disappeared within 6 months, with the exception of one patient who had chronic vocal impairment.

For pHPT, thermal ablation is both effective and safe.

Reference: https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/106/9/2707/6224302