There is a bidirectional relationship between cardiovascular and renal disease. The drug-class of SGLT2 inhibitors improves outcomes at both ends of this so called cardiorenal axis. We assessed the effects of SGLT2 inhibition and sulfonylurea treatment on systemic hemodynamic function and investigated whether SGLT2 inhibitor-induced changes in systemic hemodynamics correlate with changes in renal hemodynamics.
Forty-four people with type 2 diabetes were randomized to 12 weeks of dapagliflozin 10 mg/day or gliclazide 30 mg/day treatment. Systemic hemodynamic function, autonomic nervous system activity, and vascular stiffness were measured noninvasively, whereas renal hemodynamics, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow, were assessed with gold-standard urinary clearances of inulin or iohexol and para-aminohippuric acid, respectively. Correlation analyses were performed to assess relationships between dapagliflozin-induced changes in cardiovascular and renal variables.
Dapagliflozin reduced stroke volume by 4%, cardiac output by 5%, vascular stiffness by 11%, and mean arterial pressure by 5% from baseline, without increasing heart rate or sympathetic activity, while simultaneously lowering glomerular filtration rate by 8%. Despite similar improvements in glycemic control by dapagliflozin and gliclazide (-0.5 ± 0.5 versus-0.7 ± 0.5%; P = 0.12), gliclazide did not affect any of these measurements. There was no clear association between the dapagliflozin-induced changes in cardiovascular and renal physiology.
Dapagliflozin seemingly influences systemic and renal hemodynamics independently and beyond glucose lowering in people with type 2 diabetes.This clinical trial was registered at https://clinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT02682563).